Senin, 21 Januari 2013

Applied Petrophysics for Geologists and Engineers



Applied Petrophysics for Geologists and Engineers




This cour se intr oduces the basics of well log analysis and petr ophysics with a focus on dir ect field applications.  Miner alogical influence on well logs and integr ation of cor e data with logs will be str essed. Intr od uctor y con cepts, exa mples, and exer cises will be facilitated via r eal- time class use of a cr oss-platfor m lithology-based petr ophysical softwar e package (GAMLS). Each  student  needs to br ing a  PC  laptop for  class work.   Installation of executables and upload of files will be done at least one week pr ior  to star t of class.   Minimu m computer r equir ements:  4 GB R AM (Windows 7 & >4 GB RAM pr efer r ed) plus Excel.

Day 1 am: Introduction to Well Logs
Day 1 pm: Logging and Sampling Logistics
Day 2 am: Porosity, Permeability, and Water Saturation
Day 2 pm: Clay Minerals, Shales, and Shaly Sands”
Day 3 am: Electrofacies, Lithofacies Classification, Prediction, and Correlation Day 3 pm: Integrating Logs, Core Data, and Core Sedimentology Description Day 4 am: Prediction of Core Properties in Non-Cored Wells
Day 4 pm: Gas Shales
Day 5 am: Special Logs


Day 1 am: Introduction to Well Logs
Basic Well Logs (caliper, gamma ray, density, neutron, sonic, photoelectric, resistivity)
Review of Major Minerals and Rock Types
Quality Control
Relationship of logs to rocks and rock sequences

Day 1 pm: Logging and Sampling Logistics
Invasion
Drilling Breaks, Log Runs, & Splicing Logs Side-Wall Cores and Whole Cores MDtoTVD Correction
Upscaling

Day 2 am: Porosity, Permeability, and Water Saturation
Porosity Types (free, effective, capillary, irreducible, fracture)
Porosity Measurements (lab methods & well log methods) Permeability (measurements, ranges, anisotropy, controls)


Relationships between Porosity & Permeability (as function of lithofacies …) Overburden Correction
Water Saturation (via Archie & Dual-Water Equations; via Core Analysis; via Pc) Capillary Pressure (Pc) Concepts & Applications
Formation Water Chemistry (Diagenesis, Salinity, Water Resistivity, SP log)

Day 2 pm: Clay Minerals, Shales, and Shaly Sands
Structure, Chemistry, & Classification
Origin, Depositional Environments, & Diagenesis Petrophysical Properties (Density, Surface Area, CEC …) Analysis Techniques & Accuracy

Day 3 am: Electrofacies, Lithofacies Classification, Prediction, and Correlation
Electrofacies via Probabilistic Clustering of Well Logs
QC, Normalization, Facies, Sequences, Tops
Rock Typing from Electrofacies
Prediction of Missing Parameters (logs, porosity & permeability ) Multiwell Clustering and Correlation

Day 3 pm: Integrating Logs, Core Data, and Core Sedimentology Description
Core-to-Log Depth Correction
Reconciling Electrofacies with Core Descriptions

Day 4 am: Prediction of Core Properties in Non-Cored Wells Building a Model - Forward Modeling of Well Log and Core Properties Applying a Model to Predict Petrophysical Parameters
Pay and Net Pay

Day 4 pm: Gas Shales Kerogen, Thermal Maturation, TOC Porosity & Permeability
Well Logs
Adsorbed Gas – Evaluation

Day 5 am: Special Logs
Spectroscopy (elemental logs) conversion to minerals and mineral properties
NMR Image

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