Senin, 21 Januari 2013

BALANCED CROSS SECTIONS IN COMPRESSIONAL AND EXTENSIONAL TERRANES



BALANCED CROSS SECTIONS IN COMPRESSIONAL AND EXTENSIONAL TERRANES




WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Exploration  and  Production  Geologists  and  Geophysicists.     The  course  is  designed  for
geoscientists working in complex structural provinces (extensional and compressional), who need to apply balanced cross sections, reconstructions , and 3-D balanced models, to improve interpretations for prospect evaluation and field development.

OBJECTIVES
The course discusses the use of balanced cross sections to improve interpretations of regional
and field or prospect-scale structures in complex compressional and extensional provinces. Methods of balancing including construction methods, restoration, kinematic reconstruction, and forward modeling are discussed in detail, with applications to subsurface structures. Common pitfalls in structural interpretation for different types of structures are also discussed.  The use of
3-D interpretations based on serial sections and the application to interpretation of major fields is presented. Problem sets provide hands on experience in the construction and restoration of balanced sections and the validation of subsurface interpretations using surface, seismic, and well data.

COURSE CONTENT
1          INTRODUCTION
     Definition  and  Importance  of  Balanced  Cross  Sections  in  Structural  and  Seismic
Interpretations .
     Examples   of   balanced   and   unbalanced   sections   and   key   pitfalls   in   structural interpretation.
     Basic methods of balancing: Construction using balanced models, Restoration, Kinematic
Reconstruction and Forward Modeling, 3-D Interpretation and Modeling.

2          FOLD-THRUST BELTS
     Balanced   structural   models   of   common   fold-thrust   structures   including   fold- accommodation faults, detachment and faulted detachment folds, fault-propagation folds, fault-bend folds, duplexes, fold-thrust systems and growth-structures.

     Examples of trap-forming structures from the Alberta Foothills, the Utah-Wyoming belt, SubAndean fold belts, Campeche Bay, Mexico, and the Dinaride, Carpathian, Zagros and Papua-New Guinea fold belts, and various Deepwater fold-thrust Belts.

3          BASEMENT-INVOLVED AND INVERSION STRUCTURES
     Structural models of basement involved structures (Trishear), and inversion structures.
     Examples  of  trap-forming  structures  from  compressional  basement  structures  and inversion structures, including foreland basins, the Southern Gas Basin, the Taranaki Basin, and Indonesian Basins.

4          RIFT STRUCTURES
     Structural models of rift structures including graben, half-graben, rotational tilt blocks, and drape folds
     Map-scale balancing in divergent, convergent, and synthetic transfer zones.
     Examples of interpretations from rift settings including the North Sea, Gulf of Suez, and
Sirte basin.

5          LISTRIC GROWTH FAULTS
     Balanced models of listric growth faults and rollover folds; use of inclined shear in modeling.
     Examples of  balanced interpretations from  passive margins including Gulf of Mexico and Niger Delta

6          RESTORATION, KINEMATIC RECONSTRUCTION, AND FORWARD MODELING
     Basic Principles of Cross Section Restoration
     Line-Length Restoration
     Area Restoration
     Multiple Interpretations and Choice of Solutions
     Restoring and Balancing Salt in Extensional Structures
     Application  to Compressional and Extensional Structures
     Kinematic Reconstructions
     Forward Modeling

7          THREE-DIMENSIONAL BALANCED INTERPRETATIONS – APPLICATION TO MAJOR FIELDS
     Basic Methods of Balanced 3-D Interpretations
     Application of 3-D Modeling to Major Fields
     Rhourde-el Baguel Field, Algeria
     Painter and East Painter Fields, Wyoming
     Cantarell and Kumaza Fields, Mexico
     Ek Balam Field , Mexico


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